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Bernini's baldachin masterpiece disappears from public view until Holy Year

VATICAN CITY (CNS) -- Like a giant Tinkertoy construction, a skeletal tower of scaffolding slowly inched its way up the twisting bronze columns of the baldachin over the main altar of St. Peter's Basilica. 

baldachin scaffolding
Workers are erecting metal scaffolding around the 100-foot-tall baldachin over the main altar in St. Peter's Basilica at the Vatican Feb. 21, 2024. (CNS photo/Robert Duncan)

Workers on the ground picked through piles of shiny metal platforms, poles, clamps and couplers to then hoist them up high with pulleys to their workmates above. They had begun erecting the scaffolding after Mass on Ash Wednesday Feb. 14 and it reached almost halfway by Feb. 21.

The 100-foot-tall baldachin was set to be completely covered by metal scaffolding before Easter to allow a team of 10 to 12 restorers to start cleaning, repairing and revitalizing the masterpiece designed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini in 1624 and completed around 1633.

The biggest problem facing the restorers "is getting there, that is, to be close enough" to the bronze and wood structures and many decorative details that need to be restored, Alberto Capitanucci told Catholic News Service. 

capitanucci
Alberto Capitanucci, the head engineer of the Fabbrica di San Pietro -- the office responsible for upkeep of the basilica -- poses for a photograph at St. Peter's Basilica at the Vatican Feb. 21, 2024. (CNS photo/Robert Duncan)

Capitanucci, the head engineer of the Fabbrica di San Pietro -- the office responsible for upkeep of the basilica -- said the baldachin is a monumental architectural structure that is as high as a 10-story building.

But it is mostly empty space with its four fluted spiral bronze columns, each set upon a massive marble pedestal alongside the marble steps leading to the main altar over the tomb of St. Peter. The most delicate part of the structure is the canopy above, he said, which is made entirely of wood.

The wooden ceiling "is the size of a vessel, that is, it was designed to be the wooden planking of a boat," Capitanucci said.

Despite its enormous size, Bernini wanted the baldachin to resemble the light, open and airy cloth-covered canopy used in processions of the Blessed Sacrament. The term "baldachin" or "baudekin" comes from a special brocade fabric made in Baghdad and traditionally used for processional canopies. 

The twisting pattern on the gilded columns makes them look lighter and draws the eye upward along decorations of snaking branches of olive and laurel, bees and lizards, until it reaches the top which resembles canopy brocade and tassels blowing in the wind, he said. The top of the baldachin is meant to look like "a billowing sail" of a boat. 

cherubs baldachin
A cherub holding the keys of St. Peter and one holding up a papal tiara can be seen in this close-up photograph of the wooden canopy of the baldachin over the main altar of St. Peter's Basilica at the Vatican in this undated photo. (CNS photo/Fabbrica di San Pietro)

The angels holding floral garlands and standing at the four corners are 13 feet high, he said, and four scroll-like ornaments, shaped like dolphin backs, go from the corners up to a globe that supports a cross, which is 40 feet tall. There are four pairs of cherubs holding up the keys of St. Peter, a papal tiara and the sword and book of St. Paul.  

What looks small from below is, in reality, enormous in size, Capitanucci said, indicating that the bees on top are as long as a briefcase. Pope Urban VIII, who hired Bernini to design the baldachin, belonged to the Barberini family, whose coat of arms consists of three bees.

Capitanucci said they used drones to take over 6,000 photographs of the hard-to-reach canopy and its inner ceiling featuring the dove of the Holy Spirit surrounded by golden fire. The up-close images will help them plan how to proceed with the restoration, he said.

The entire structure will be covered in sheer cloth to shield workers from the public, he said, and still let in lots of natural light.

And, once the scaffolding is completely up, the wooden box now protecting the main altar will be removed so the altar can still be used for papal ceremonies for the rest of the year. The entire restoration should be completed by the end of December for the start of the Holy Year. 

enzo fortunato
Franciscan Father Enzo Fortunato, director of communication for St. Peter's Basilica, poses for a photograph at St. Peter's Basilica at the Vatican Feb. 21, 2024. (CNS photo/Robert Duncan)

Franciscan Father Enzo Fortunato, director of communication for St. Peter's Basilica, told CNS the baldachin "is the linchpin of the basilica."

It draws attention to the main altar, which is "the heart, where the Eucharistic sacrifice takes place, the Eucharistic celebration that is the source and summit of Christian life," he said.

The current restoration project, funded by the Knights of Columbus, marks only the second restoration since the baldachin was built, he said, the last restoration being in the late 1700s.

When works of art are preserved well, he said, it keeps alive the belief that "beauty leads to God" and it reminds people "what human genius can create."

The baldachin also symbolizes that it is possible for all people to work together to create something spectacular, Father Fortunato said. Many other artists worked with Bernini to build the masterpiece, including his fiercest rival, Francesco Borromini.

"This makes us understand that teamwork, working together, always bears beautiful and good fruit," the Franciscan friar said.

A historic restoration in St. Peter's

A historic restoration in St. Peter's

A look at a monumental restoration project in St. Peter's Basilica.

New Initiative Strives to Explain the Perennial Question: “What is Love?”

WASHINGTON – “Conversations about love, marriage, sexuality, family, and the human person can be confusing and polarizing”, said Bishop Robert Barron of Winona-Rochester. “This is why I am pleased to announce the launch of Love Means More to help bring clarity and compassion to those questions.”

As the month of February brings cultural attention to Valentine’s Day and with it, conflicting notions of love, Bishop Barron noted that “cultural narratives tell us love is mostly about feeling good. True love is deeper than that, calling us to follow Christ’s example of sacrificial love so we can live in union with Him forever.”

The Love Means More initiative is an ongoing campaign, based around a new website that takes a deep dive into the meanings of love. It is a versatile resource for Catholic catechists, as well as “seekers” from any religious background, but also welcomes those who profess no religious background at all. Bishop Barron is chairman of the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops’ Committee on Laity, Marriage, Family Life and Youth, which is spearheading the initiative.

Love Means More renews the effort begun by Marriage: Unique for a Reason to promote and defend what Christ has revealed about marriage and family, but also addresses a broader range of topics in the area of human sexuality, organized around the central question, “What is love?” This approach enables learners to see how some difficult discussions can actually be the result of hidden assumptions about more basic questions, such as:

Is love only how someone makes you feel?
Does love mean ‘to will the good’ of the other?
Is unity necessarily the goal of all love?

The Love Means More initiative is the result of wide consultation with bishops, pastors, educators, medical and mental health professionals, and lay Catholic leaders involved with family life ministry. The initiative has also heard, and seeks to address, questions and concerns received from people who are uncomfortable with some Church teachings. These include those who uphold the possibility of divorce and remarriage, LGBT-identifying individuals, and those who defend pornography. As content continues to be added post-launch, this initiative will be a valuable resource for engaging in cultural conversation about love.

The website for Love Means More may be accessed at: https://lovemeansmore.org/

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Vatican announces synod assembly dates; formation of study groups

VATICAN CITY (CNS) -- The second assembly of the Synod of Bishops on synodality will meet Oct. 2-27 and will be preceded by several formal studies coordinated by the synod general secretariat working with various offices of the Roman Curia.

The Vatican announced the dates for the assembly Feb. 17, indicating that the desire of some synod members to spend less time in Rome was not accepted. The fall assembly will be preceded by a retreat for members Sept. 30-Oct. 1, the Vatican said.

And in response to a formal call by members of the first assembly of the synod, Pope Francis has agreed to the establishment of "study groups that will initiate, with a synodal method, the in-depth study of some of the themes that emerged."

In a chirograph, or brief papal document, released Feb. 17, the pope said that "these study groups are to be established by mutual agreement between the competent dicasteries of the Roman Curia and the General Secretariat of the Synod, which is entrusted with coordination."

However, the papal note did not list the topics to be studied nor the members of the groups. The synod office said it hoped the approved groups and their members could be announced by mid-March.

Pope Francis at synod assembly
Pope Francis smiles as members of the assembly of the Synod of Bishops approach the end of their work Oct. 28, 2023, in the Paul VI Hall at the Vatican. (CNS photo/Vatican Media)

Pope Francis' note focused on the obligation of the offices of the Roman Curia to work with the synod since both bodies, though distinct, are established "to promote in a synodal spirit the mutual relations of the bishops and of the particular Churches over which they preside, among themselves and in communion with the Bishop of Rome."

In their synthesis report at the end of the first synod assembly, members voted to ask Pope Francis for several studies before the 2024 assembly, including on "the terminological and conceptual understanding of the notion and practice of synodality" itself; and another study on "the canonical implications of synodality," conducted by "an intercontinental special commission of theological and canonical experts."

Synod members also called for further theological study on the permanent diaconate and said, "theological and pastoral research on the access of women to the diaconate should be continued, benefiting from consideration of the results of the commissions specially established by the Holy Father, and from the theological, historical and exegetical research already undertaken."

"If possible," members said, "the results of this research should be presented to the next session of the assembly."

After a request of the women's International Union of Superiors General, Pope Francis established a commission to study the historic identity and role of women deacons. The commission worked from 2016 to 2019, and the pope gave a report on it to the superiors general, but it was not made public. He set up a second commission in 2020 after the Synod of Bishops for the Amazon; its results have not been published either.

The assembly of the synod on synodality also said, "We believe the time has come for a revision of the 1978 document 'Mutuae Relationes,' regarding the relationships between bishops and religious in the Church. We propose that this revision be completed in a synodal manner, consulting all involved."

Synod members at St. Peter's Basilica
​ Members of the assembly of the Synod of Bishops prepare to enter St. Peter's Basilica at the Vatican in procession as they pray the rosary for peace Oct. 25, 2023. (CNS photo/Paolo Galosi, pool)

On several occasions after his election in 2013, Pope Francis said he had asked the dicastery for religious to revise "Mutuae Relationes," a set of directives issued jointly with the then-Congregation for Bishops in 1978 to provide guidance to bishops and religious in their relationship. Pope Francis has said the norms need revision to ensure religious are not treated simply as employees or human resources for a diocese and to ensure that the orders' autonomy does not lead them to activities in conflict with a local church.

The synod assembly also called for "a thorough review of formation for ordained ministry in view of the missionary and synodal dimensions of the Church." Assembly members said that involves "reviewing the 'Ratio Fundamentalis' that determines how formation is structured."

The "Ratio Fundamentalis" was last updated in late 2016 and provides guidelines for preparing men for the Latin-rite priesthood and ensuring their continuing education, training and support.

 

Vices are 'beasts' of the soul that need taming, pope says at Angelus

VATICAN CITY (CNS) -- Vices, such as vanity and greed, are like "wild beasts" of the soul that risk tearing people apart, Pope Francis said.

Vices "must be tamed and fought, otherwise they will devour our freedom," he said Feb. 18 before reciting the Angelus prayer with about 15,000 visitors in St. Peter's Square. 

angelus crowd
Visitors gather in St. Peter's Square at the Vatican to pray the Angelus with Pope Francis Feb. 18, 2024. (CNS photo/Vatican Media)

The period of Lent, he added, helps Christians create moments of silence, prayer and reflection in order to correct those vices and perceive the promptings of the Holy Spirit.

On the first Sunday of Lent, the pope focused his main Angelus address on the day's Gospel reading about Jesus in the desert or "the wilderness." He remained there for 40 days, "tempted by Satan. He was among wild beasts, and the angels ministered to him," according to the Gospel of St. Mark (1:12-13).

"We too, during Lent, are invited to 'enter the wilderness,' that is, silence, the inner world, listening to the heart, in contact with the truth," the pope said.

By entering into one's inner world, he said, "we can encounter wild beasts and angels there."

The "beasts" of the soul, he said, are "the disordered passions that divide the heart, trying to take possession of it. They entice us, they seem seductive, but if we are not careful, we risk being torn apart by them."

They include various vices, he said, such as coveting wealth, "the vanity of pleasure, which condemns us to restlessness and solitude, and the craving for fame, which gives rise to insecurity and a continuous need for confirmation and prominence."

However, the pope said, angels were also in the desert with Jesus. 

pope angelus
Pope Francis addresses visitors gathered in St. Peter's Square at the Vatican to pray the Angelus with Pope Francis Feb. 18, 2024. (CNS photo/Vatican Media)

"These are God's messengers, who help us, who do us good: indeed, their characteristic, according to the Gospel, is service," he said. "While temptations tear us apart, the good divine inspirations unify us and let us enter into harmony: they quench the heart, infuse the taste of Christ, 'the flavor of Heaven.'"

"In order to grasp the inspiration of God, one must enter into silence and prayer. And Lent is the time to do this," the pope said, encouraging Christians to dedicate the time and space needed for such reflection each day.

Pope Francis and leaders of the Roman Curia were to dedicate themselves to private prayer and reflection from the afternoon of Feb. 18 to the afternoon of Feb. 23. 

angelus cow
Farmers bring a cow, named Ercolina II, to St. Peter's Square for the recitation of the Angelus prayer at the Vatican Feb. 18, 2024. A man holds up a sign of a black and white image of the first Ercolina who was the mascot of dairy farmers who protested limits imposed by the European Union on milk production in 1997. (CNS photo/Vatican Media)

After the Angelus, the pope greeted Italian agricultural and livestock farmers, who had come to St. Peter's Square seeking his blessing as they joined farmers across Europe demonstrating about rising costs, falling incomes and the impact of European Union regulations aimed at mitigating climate change.

The farmers had their mascot, a cow named Ercolina II, with them in the square. The first Ercolina had been the mascot of dairy farmers who protested limits imposed by the European Union on milk production and associated large fines for exceeding quotas in 1997.

Pope: Let prayer defeat war

Pope: Let prayer defeat war

A look at Pope Francis' Angelus Feb. 18.

Chalices and chasubles: Fair displays industries revolving around religion

BOLOGNA, Italy (CNS) -- Incense slowly drifted upward, not below the vaulted ceiling of Bologna's Basilica of San Petronio, but toward the fluorescent lighting and steel beams in the city's convention center, which for three days bore the trappings of a temple rather than those of a corporate meeting place.

From Feb. 11-13, the Italian city hosted more than 200 vendors of religious art, liturgical attire and services for churches, who showcased their offerings at the Devotio International Religious Products and Services Exhibition, sponsored in part by the Vatican Dicastery for Culture and Education.

Retailers, owners of religious shops, wholesalers and manufacturers of religious goods were the primary buyers at the convention, though priests and religious sisters also represented a sizable portion of the crowd wandering through Bologna's convention center. Organizers said more than 3,000 people attended.

A priest shops for a chasuble.
A priest shops for a chasuble with the help of his father at the International Religious Products and Services Exhibition in Bologna, Italy, Feb. 13, 2024. (CNS photo/Justin McLellan)

The rows of booths displayed items ranging from liturgical supplies and garments to wine and unleavened bread for consecration; a booth dedicated to promoting the Camino de Santiago, a popular pilgrimage route in northern Spain, also made a splash.

One day a group of Franciscan friars could be seen assessing chalices and patens, while religious sisters browsed wall art featuring the faces of saints painted onto hand-carved wooden shapes. One young priest shopped for a new chasuble in the company of his parents.

Solvari garments, a liturgical vestment producer from Bergamo, Italy, prominently displayed a Roman chasuble, predominantly used in the celebration of Mass prior to the Second Vatican Council. A company representative told Catholic News Service he had not seen increased sales of Roman chasubles in recent years, but he put it at the front of his display "because everyone can appreciate beauty."

Blessed Carlo Acutis statue.
A statue of Blessed Carlo Acutis is seen on display at the International Religious Products and Services Exhibition in Bologna, Italy, Feb. 13, 2024. (CNS photo/Justin McLellan)

Enzo Gandolfo of Gandolfo wines from Sicily had bottles of Mass wine available for sampling. Although wine used for consecration is not necessarily intended to optimize taste, "it's important for priests to have something they like" when celebrating Mass, he told CNS.

Reappearing constantly among the rows of devotional items was the face of Blessed Carlo Acutis -- the Italian website designer who catalogued Eucharistic miracles and Marian apparitions online before dying from leukemia at 15. Many hoping for his canonization are calling for him to be declared patron saint of the internet.

Elisabetta Bertelli, founder of Stringila religious art, displayed a cross-shaped pillow with Blessed Carlo's face. She said the pillows are not designed to be slept on but to hold onto during prayer, putting the person praying in physical contact with the cross.

Bertelli told CNS she wanted to put Blessed Carlo's face on the pillow with the hopes of spreading the beauty of prayer to young people. "He's a young person that has inspired so many," she said.

Holy Year 2025 official backpack.
The official backpack for the Holy Year 2025 is seen on display at the International Religious Products and Services Exhibition in Bologna, Italy, Feb. 13, 2024. (CNS photo/Justin McLellan)

Another booth was dedicated to official gear for the Holy Year 2025, including the pilgrim's kit and backpack which was presented at the expo. The kit includes items necessary for any pilgrim: a hat, rain poncho, water bottle, scarf and, of course, a rosary.

“I know well how useful a backpack can be during a pilgrimage and how important it is to preserve it, with the signs of time and wear, as a witness full of memories of those days of prayer and reflection, full of emotions and therefore unforgettable,” said Archbishop Rino Fisichella, the Vatican official in charge of coordinating plans for the Holy Year, in a statement. The Holy Year office will begin distributing the pilgrim kits to individuals online and at an official Holy Year shop in Rome in March and also will distribute them in partnership with dioceses and pilgrimage groups.

Beyond religious products, vendors at the expo also offered services such as designing and installing audio systems or lighting structures for churches.

Thomas Nell, senior partner at Spotlight -- a professional lighting services firm for the performing arts -- said that while his company does not specialize in lighting for religious spaces, churches are a performative as well as contemplative structures, and proper lighting "can help lift someone upward spiritually."

Yet churches often "go for what is cheap" and buy harsh fluorescent lights, he said, even though good lighting "can change the look of an entire space."

Stained-glass artist.
Sofia Malavasi, a stained-glass artist, works on a design at the International Religious Products and Services Exhibition in Bologna, Italy, Feb. 13, 2024. (CNS photo/Justin McLellan)

In one of the most engaging booth displays, Sofia Malavasi was scraping and shaping stained glass to form a floral decal. An apprentice at a local stained-glass workshop in Bologna, Malavasi told CNS that as a young person she hoped to advance the rich legacy of stained-glass work even as interest in churches and religious art wanes. She said that when she started her training, she was surprised and encouraged to learn how many people have stained glass in their homes.

But Malavasi was most proud of her workshop's coordination of the massive restoration of the windows in the Basilica of San Petronio in Bologna.

"It was incredible to see the difference," she said, recalling how volunteers in the basilica were struck by how much natural light entered the space "just by restoring the glass to how it was intended to look."

Vatican announces theme for World Day for Grandparents and the Elderly

VATICAN CITY (CNS) -- Pope Francis has chosen a line from Psalm 71 -- "Do not cast me off in my old age" -- as the theme for the 2024 celebration of the World Day for Grandparents and the Elderly.

In a note announcing the theme for the day, which will be celebrated July 28, the Vatican said the choice was "meant to call attention to the fact that, sadly, loneliness is the bitter lot in life of many elderly persons, so often the victims of the throwaway culture."

Pope Francis celebrated the first World Day for Grandparents and the Elderly in 2021 and decreed that it be observed each year on the Sunday closest to the feast of Sts. Joachim and Anne, Jesus' grandparents.

As the Catholic Church prepares for the Holy Year 2025, Pope Francis has asked Catholics to focus on prayer, which is why he chose the prayer of an elderly person from the Psalms for the theme, the Vatican said in a statement released Feb. 15.

The logo for World Day of Grandparents and the Elderly 2024
This graphic for World Day for Grandparents and the Elderly 2024 features the theme for the July 28 celebration: "Do not cast me off in my old age," a passage from Psalm 71. (CNS photo/courtesy Dicastery for Laity, the Family and Life)

"By cherishing the charisms of grandparents and the elderly, and the contribution they make to the life of the Church, the World Day seeks to support the efforts of every ecclesial community to forge bonds between the generations and to combat loneliness," the statement said.

Cardinal Kevin J. Farrell, prefect of the Dicastery for Laity, the Family and Life, said the theme is a reminder "that, unfortunately, loneliness is a widespread reality, which afflicts many elderly people, often victims of the throwaway culture and considered a burden to society."

Families and parishes, he said, "are called to be at the forefront in promoting a culture of encounter, to create spaces for sharing, listening, to offer support and affection: thus, the love of Gospel becomes concrete."

"Our communities, with their tenderness and affectionate attention that does not forget its most fragile members, are called to manifest the love of God, who never abandons anyone," the cardinal said.

 

Pope: During Lent, leave appearances aside and listen to God

ROME (CNS) -- In an age when even one's most intimate thoughts and feelings can become fodder for social media, Lent is a time to cast aside appearances and to find God at work in the depths of the heart, Pope Francis said.

Without realizing it, Christians have become immersed "in a world in which everything, including our emotions and deepest feelings, has to become 'social,'" the pope said while celebrating Mass at the Basilica of Santa Sabina in Rome to mark the beginning of Lent Feb. 14.

Today, "even the most tragic and painful experiences risk not having a quiet place where they can be kept," he said. "Everything has to be exposed, shown off, fed to the gossip mill of the moment."

Dressed in purple vestments to mark the Lenten season, Pope Francis said Lent is a chance for Christians to ensure their relationship with God "is not reduced to mere outward show."

Cardinals pray.
Cardinals pray during Pope Francis’ Ash Wednesday Mass at the Basilica of Santa Sabina in Rome Feb. 14, 2024. (CNS photo/Lola Gomez)

Lent "immerses us in a bath of purification," he said. "It means looking within ourselves and acknowledging our real identity, removing the masks we so often wear, slowing the frantic pace of our lives and embracing the truth of who we are."

The Lenten practices of "almsgiving, prayer and fasting are not mere external practices; they are paths that lead to the heart, to the core of the Christian life," he added, encouraging Christians to "love the brothers and sisters all around us, to be considerate to others, to feel compassion, to show mercy, to share all that we are and all that we have with those in need."

The liturgy began with a prayer at the nearby Church of St. Anselm, which is part of a Benedictine monastery on Rome's Aventine Hill. Chanting the litany of saints, cardinals, joined by Benedictine and Dominican religious, then processed to the Basilica of Santa Sabina -- considered the mother church of the Dominican order -- for Mass.

Pope Francis, who has regularly used a wheelchair since May 2022, did not participate in the procession. In the basilica the pope blessed the ashes with holy water, praying that "we recognize that we are dust and to dust we will return."

A priest administers ashes.
A woman receives ashes during Pope Francis' Ash Wednesday Mass at the Basilica of Santa Sabina in Rome Feb. 14, 2024. (CNS photo/Lola Gomez)

The pope received ashes from Cardinal Mauro Piacenza, head of the Apostolic Penitentiary, who also was the Mass's main celebrant at the altar.

In his homily, Pope Francis said "the ashes placed on our head invite us to rediscover the secret of life."

"We are ashes on which God has breathed his breath of life," he said. " And if, in the ashes that we are, the fire of the love of God burns, then we will discover that we have indeed been shaped by that love and called to love others in turn."

Pope Francis also recalled the day's Gospel reading from St. Matthew, in which Jesus tells his disciples not to make a public show of their prayer but to rather "go to your inner room" to pray.

Jesus' message "is a salutary invitation for us, who so often live on the surface of things, who are so concerned to be noticed, who constantly need to be admired and appreciated," he said.

The pope urged Christians to "return to the center of yourself," where "so many fears, feelings of guilt and sin are lurking."

Pope Francis greets visitors.
Pope Francis greets visitors as he leaves the Basilica of Santa Sabina in Rome after celebrating Ash Wednesday Mass Feb. 14, 2024. (CNS photo/Lola Gomez)

"Precisely there the Lord has descended in order to heal and cleanse you," he said. "Let us enter into our inner chamber: There the Lord dwells, there our frailty is accepted and we are loved unconditionally."

Pope Francis suggested that during Lent Christians make space to incorporate silent adoration into their lives, as practiced by Moses, Elijah, Mary and Jesus.

"Have we realized that we've lost the meaning of adoration? Let us return to adoration," he said.

Like St. Francis of Assisi, Christians should "strip ourselves of worldly trappings and return to the heart, to what is essential," the pope said. "Let us acknowledge what we are: dust loved by God."

Pope Francis' Ash Wednesday

Pope Francis' Ash Wednesday

A look at Pope Francis' Ash Wednesday message.

Laziness is a symptom of 'acedia,' a dangerous vice, pope says

VATICAN CITY (CNS) -- The vice of "acedia," often translated as "sloth," can cause laziness, but it is much more than that; it is a lack of caring for anything and being bored with everything, even one's relationship with God, Pope Francis said.

"The demon of acedia wants precisely to destroy the simple joy of the here and now, the grateful wonder of reality; it wants to make you believe that it is all in vain, that nothing has meaning, that it is not worth taking care of anything or anyone," the pope said at his weekly general audience Feb. 14.

Holding his audience on Ash Wednesday, Pope Francis prayed that God would accompany and bless people through their Lenten journey, but his main talk was a continuation of his series on vices and virtues.

People spend too little time talking about "the capital sin" of acedia, he said, and even when they do, they refer to it as sloth or laziness.

But "in reality, laziness is an effect more than a cause," the pope said. "When a person is idle, indolent, apathetic, we say he is lazy. But as the wisdom of the ancient desert fathers teaches us, often the root is acedia, which from its Greek origin literally means a 'lack of care.'"

Pope Francis at his general audience
Pope Francis talks to visitors during his weekly general audience in the Paul VI Audience Hall at the Vatican Feb. 14, 2024. (CNS photo/Lola Gomez)

Pope Francis described acedia as "a very dangerous temptation that one should not mess around with," because it makes a person "feel disgust at everything; their relationship with God becomes boring to them; and even the holiest acts, those that in the past warmed their hearts, now appear entirely useless to them."

Acedia can sometimes feel like depression, but it is a vice that tempts people to let go of caring for themselves and for others, he said. "For those caught up in acedia, life loses meaning, praying is boring (and) every battle seems meaningless."

"It is a bit like dying in advance and it's awful," the pope said.

When a person feels acedia creeping in, he said, they need to try to cultivate "the patience of faith" with a few small steps.

"In the clutches of acedia, one's desire is to be elsewhere, to escape from reality," the pope said, so to fight it "one must instead have the courage to remain and to welcome God's presence in the 'here and now,' in the situation as it is."

Take a breath, he said, set smaller goals and "persevere by leaning on Jesus, who never abandons us in temptation."

The pope ended the audience encouraging Catholics to live Lent "as an opportunity for conversion and inner renewal in listening to the Word of God and in caring for our brothers and sisters most in need," including by praying for those suffering because of war and violence in Ukraine, Palestine and Israel.

 

Lenten retreat: Book helps people explore pope's teaching on belonging

VATICAN CITY (CNS) -- Pope Francis's concern for migrants and refugees, his focus on ecology, his calls to "go out" to share the good news of salvation, even his support for the controversial possibility of informally blessing LGBTQ+ couples flow from his conviction that people need to know they belong to God, to one another and to creation.

"All the life-threatening crises that beset us around the world, from the ecological crisis to the wars, the injustices against the poor and vulnerable, have their roots in this rejection of our belonging to God and to each other," the pope wrote in a foreword to "First Belong to God: A Retreat with Pope Francis," a book released Feb. 13, the day before the beginning of Lent.

To understand Pope Francis and his teaching, it is helpful to understand -- and even experience -- the Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius that have shaped his spirituality since he joined the Jesuits in 1958, said Austen Ivereigh, author of the new book.

Ivereigh, who has written two biographies of the pope, has woven together a classic eight-day preached version of the Spiritual Exercises with five decades of spiritual reflections by Pope Francis in the book, which was published in Ireland by Messenger Publications and in the United States by Loyola Press.

"The big overall theme is belonging, or the crisis of belonging to which the pontificate is, in many ways, a response," Ivereigh said.

Pope Francis continually returns to the theme, insisting each person was created by God, is loved by God and is called to recognize that he or she belongs to God.

Remembering that first belonging inspires humility and gratitude but also frees people from erroneously thinking they can or should be able to control everything and everyone around them.

The pope's repeated reminder to young people at World Youth Day in Lisbon, Portugal, that there is room in the church for "todos, todos, todos" -- everyone, everyone, everyone -- also flows from that basic conviction that every person is loved by God. That love comes first -- before a person acts on it or even accepts it.

"What Pope Francis has done with his bold 'the church is for everyone' message is show that the church exists to communicate the unconditional love of God for all his creatures, and that our conversion begins with embracing that truth," Ivereigh told Catholic News Service.

Cover of
"First Belong to God: A Retreat with Pope Francis," a book by Austen Ivereigh, is published in the United States by Loyola Press. Using a classic eight-day preached version of the Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius of Loyola and five decades worth of spiritual reflections by Pope Francis, the book is a retreat guide for individuals or groups. (CNS photo/Courtesy Loyola Press)

"We do not earn God's love by changing but change by accepting God's love," he said. "That's hard for us, because we prefer to believe that what is of value must be earned or deserved."

That temptation, he said, can be seen "in much of the reaction to 'Fiducia Supplicans,'" the document of the Dicastery for the Doctrine of the Faith that opened the possibility for priests and other ministers to give non-liturgical blessings to gay and other couples not married in the church.

"People find it hard to accept that we are all blessable," he said, thinking instead that "we must first change in order to belong."

But, Ivereigh said, "like St. Ignatius, Pope Francis goes the other way. No, he says: first you belong. Then, as you absorb that truth, you will change."

Ivereigh pairs major documents by the pope with each part of the "belonging," showing a progressive development of the theme throughout Pope Francis' pontificate: the 2013 "The Joy of the Gospel" emphasizing belonging to God; the 2015 "Laudato Si', On Care for Our Common Home," about belonging to creation; and the 2020 "Fratelli Tutti, on Fraternity and Social Friendship," exploring how people belong to each other.

In his foreword, Pope Francis wrote that to help people resist the temptation to reject "our belonging to God and to each other," the church offers prayers and spiritual practices, including confession, the regular celebration of the Eucharist and spiritual retreats.

In the full 30-day Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius, Ivereigh said, the saint "urges weekly confession and Eucharist," but he also dedicates the whole first week "to meditating on sin and God's mercy," themes that stand out in Pope Francis' personal journey of faith and in his preaching.

"We meditate on these not to 'wallow' but the opposite: to realize that we need our Savior, and that God's mercy is the real power in this world," Ivereigh said.

The book also includes repeated references to Pope Francis' homilies during the height of the COVID-19 pandemic and how he used them to emphasize humanity's belonging to God, to each other and to the created world.

Grasping those connections, the pope had said, would determine whether humanity would come out of the pandemic better or worse off than before.

"I don't think anyone would say that the world is better now than in 2019," Ivereigh told CNS. "I think most people, including Pope Francis, would say the opposite. We seem to be in a dark time that is set to get darker, and in many ways, we've doubled down and gone backward."

"But I think Francis would also want to point to some of the signs of hope: for example, the awakening to abuse, the concern for our common home, the awareness of suffering and inequality -- all these were maybe helped by COVID," he said.

"But in any case, our hope as Christians doesn't assume that the world will get better," Ivereigh said. The last chapter of his book, focused on Jesus' passion and death, "is called 'The Triumph of Failure' because in human, worldly terms we might not see success at all, but God will use our apparently fruitless actions to bring about redemption."

 

Pope Francis Accepts Resignation of Bishop Robert Deeley of Diocese of Portland; Appoints Rev. James Ruggieri as Successor

WASHINGTON - Pope Francis has accepted the resignation of Bishop Robert P. Deeley, 77, from the pastoral governance of the Diocese of Portland, and has appointed Reverend James T. Ruggieri, as Bishop-elect of Portland. Bishop-elect Ruggieri is a priest of the Diocese of Providence, and currently serves as pastor at St. Patrick’s parish and St. Michael’s parish in Providence, Rhode Island. The resignation and appointment were publicized in Washington, D.C. on February 13, 2024, by Cardinal Christophe Pierre, apostolic nuncio to the United States.

The following biographical information for Bishop-elect Ruggieri was drawn from preliminary materials provided to the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops:

Father Ruggieri was born January 12, 1968, in Providence, Rhode Island. He attended public schools in Barrington, Rhode Island, followed by studies at Holy Cross and Providence College (1986-1990) and received a bachelor’s degree in philosophy while attending Our Lady of Providence Seminary. He received a master’s in divinity and a bachelor’s in sacred theology from St. Mary Seminary and University (1990-1995) in Baltimore, Maryland. He was ordained to the priesthood for the Diocese of Providence on June 24, 1995.

Bishop-elect Ruggieri’s assignments after ordination include: parochial vicar at St. Matthew parish in Cranston (1995-1998), St. Aloysius, St. Ann, and Our Lady of Victories parishes in Woonsocket (1998-2001), and Holy Spirit Catholic Community in Central Falls (2001-2003), and as administrator of St. Casimir parish in Providence (2004-2011), and St. John the Baptist parish in Pawtucket (2005-2006). He was named pastor of St. Patrick parish in 2003, and in 2020 was named pastor of St. Michael’s parish, both in Providence, where he currently serves.

Bishop-elect Ruggieri’s additional responsibilities for the Diocese of Providence have included serving as vicar forane for Providence Central City (2006-2009), and a member of the diocesan council of priests (2008-2011) and the priests’ personnel board (2013-2014). He speaks English and Spanish.

The Diocese of Portland is comprised of 35,385 square miles in the state of Maine and has a total population of 1,362,357, of which 286,095 are Catholic.

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